There is a universal language among safety professionals when talking about how we manage our safety rules: job hazard analysis, job safety analysis, standard operating procedures, and policies and procedures.
Let’s take a moment to clarify what they are, the difference, and how/when to use each one.
In my personal practice, I use all of these, and they are all linked together. The way I will lay them out here is what I have been using for over a decade. And I have found it to be the most thorough for addressing hazards, safe work practices, and regulatory requirements.
JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS
Also called the Job Safety Analysis, both are usually shortened to JHA or JSA; these terms a
Are you in the JHA or JSA camp?
A JHA is a method of identifying hazards associated with a job task. When done correctly, each task will divide into its fundamental steps, including the quality and efficiency of the operations.
After examining each stage to identify any potential risks, it will develop safe work procedures.
I have seen JHAs for an entire department as opposed to a job task. This method is not as effective as when examining a job task’s details. Keeping the JHA to a task makes it manageable to identify EVERY hazard. A JHA for an entire department is too big to be useful.
Essentially, JSA or JHA is the step-by-step instructions for a specific task at a granular level, including all aspects of the job task such as safety, training, equipment, quality, efficiency, and productivity.
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES
Standard Operating Procedures or SOPs are very similar to JHAs, but they cover the entire job.
An SOP is an entire book, where a JHA is just a chapter in that book.
SOPs are usually in the form of a numbered or bulleted list. Because they cover the entire job, SOPs tend to be lengthy documents, as big as a giant binder in some cases or multiple binders.
It is best to organize the SOP into similar activities. For example, an SOP for a delivery driver may include sections for delivering the product, operating the vehicle, and general job tasks.
SOPs can become the most referenced document in your operations. It is constantly changing with the procedures and is an excellent resource for your workers and management team and an ideal training tool.
POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
You might be thinking that JHAs and SOPs cover everything. Why do you need policies and procedures? Policies hold a unique position, filling a gap that the other two don’t cover.
Policies also cover regulations; in fact, some rule requires that you have a written policy or procedure for the regulation.
Policies also cover regulations; in fact, some regulation requires that you have a written policy or procedure for the regulation.
The most significant difference is that policies explain why safe work practices are in place and who and what activities the policy applies. And it also lists all the related activities associated with the procedure, such as responsibilities, recordkeeping, training, inspections, and change management.
These documents allow you to go deeper into a specific procedure.
HOW DO THE THREE OF THEM WORK TOGETHER
This is what I think is interesting. You really need all three to have a comprehensive safety program.
And, all three are entwined together and derived from each other.
When you are first starting out, you conduct a hazard assessment. This will help you identify what policies and procedures are necessary for your operations.
At the same time, you can make a list of the different job tasks that get performed.
During your hazard assessment, look at a 12-month to 3-year claims review and list all the job tasks that were involved when the accident happened. This will bring non-routine tasks to your attention.
The first documents you want to put together are the policies and procedures. Because some regulations require them, but also as a reference when creating the other two.
Next, work on the JHAs. I won’t lie to you; when you are creating JHAs for every job task in your operation, it is a daunting mission. It will take a long time.
As you are creating the JHA, reference back to the policy to make sure any requirements of the policy includes in the JHA. And vice versa, the JHA may bring up items you realize need to be included in the policy.
As each complete JHA, you want to take all the steps of the task. And all the safe work practices listed and combined into one cohesive Standard Operating Procedure.
You see, the JHA references the policy; the policy references the JHA; the SOP derives from the JHA. That is how they all work together.
WHY DO I EVEN NEED A JHA?
When looking at this process, you may be thinking that the JHA is redundant. You can just put all that information into the SOP and skip the JHA part.
The reason you want the separate JHA is that it tends to be more detailed. It allows you to show how you came up with safe work practices. And it relates the safe work practice to a particular hazard. It is kind of like a justification for working safely.
Also, when an incident does happen, it is much easier to grab the short and specific JHA to determine what went wrong then searching for it in the longer SOP.
THEY ARE LIVING DOCUMENTS
All three of these are regularly being reviewed and updated. Every time there is a change in process or a new product or procedure, they get updated.
Here are two examples of how this works.
- Accident happens
- JHA is pulled and reviewed as part of the investigation
- As part of the corrective action, there are changes made.
- JHA review date is updated (you’re good for a while)
- SOP updated to reflect the change to the JHA – review the entire SOP while you’re at it
- The policy is updated to reflect the change – update that review date
- New process or product
- Policies are reviewed and updated following their management of change sections
- Change the review date of the policy
- Creates JHAs for the new process
- The SOP is updated to reflect the new JHA –
changethat review date and you are good for a while
There you have it. Now you see how the three documents are all different but essential to a safety program.
What do you currently have in place, what can you add, and what could use an update?
This week, start with your policies and procedures. Make a list of all of them and their last review dates. Create a plan to get them all up to date within the next few weeks.
From there, move onto JHAs and SOPs. Remember, it is a process, and it is time-consuming at first.
But, once you have it in place, you create a routine for every job. Routines reduce incidents, creating a smooth-running operation.
Now It’s Your Turn
Take a moment to share how, and if, you use these three types of documents. I would love to hear your thoughts. Leave a comment below and continue this conversation.
Hi, I'm Brye (rhymes with sky)! I am a self-proclaimed safety geek with two decades of general industry safety experience. Specializing in bringing safety programs to a world-class level and building a safety culture, I have trained and coached many safety managers, just like you, on how to effectively manage workplace safety in the real world. I would love to help you too.